Donguibogam


Sancheong’s Famous Figures

Heojun 1539~1615

His ja is Chungwoon, his pen name is Guam and Bonkwan is yang.
His father was Heoron, a Yongcheonbusa and a military officer and his grandfather is Heogon, a Gyeongsangdowoosusa. He was born as bastard. There was a tale that he went to his grandmother’s hometown, Saneum Jungtae(present: Sangjung Sinan-myeon, Sancheong-gun) in his childhood and met Ryuitae who was praised as a divine medical doctor to learn the medical techniques.
Heojun had a position in Naeuiwon in his early 30’s.
At age 37, he cured the king’s disease as a royal doctor and became a head master to control all medical doctors in Naeuiwon.
Under the order of Sunjo, Donguibogam was completed by Heojun in 1610(Gwanghae 2) and initially published in 1613(Gwanghae 5).
Donguibogam is published in 25 books and 25 chaek. This is composed of 5 chapters; Naegyeong, Owigyeong, Jabbyoeng, Tangaek and Chimgu.
The word, Dongui, is first used by Heojun. According to Donguibogam Jipre, he tried to compare with Dongwon, Lee and Dangye,Ju who were the greatest doctors in Chinese medical history with writing, “Many years ago, Dongwon, Lee wrote ‘Dongwonsipseo’ and acted as Bukui in Gwanjung. Because the Joseon is located in the far-east but the medical history didn’t be cut, we can call it ‘Dongui’.
At the International Consultative Committee of UNESCO on July 30, 2009 in Barbados, it is registered as Memory of World Register. It was the first time as a public health book. It became a motive to prove the excellence of our traditional Korean Medicine to the world. To have uadringentenary celebration of Donguibogam publication and celebration of registration on Memory of World Register of UNESCO and to promote, with all people, the excellence and value of Korean Medicine to all mankind in the world, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Gyeongsangnamdo and Sancheong-gun held ‘2013 Sancheong Expo of Traditional Medicines in the World’ in 2013.9.6 ~ 10.20 (45 days) in Donguibogamcheon.

Ryuitae 1652~1715

His ja is Baekwon and pen name is Sinyeondang, Wonhaksanin and Inseo and Bonkwan is Geochang.
He was a royal doctor for Sukjong. He was appointed as Ansangunsu but he didn’t start his position but performed medical activities in Saneum(present: Sinyeon-ri, Saengcho-myeon, Sancheong-gun) in which his mother’s ancestors lived. In 1706 (Sukjong 32), he was motivated with see many people was dying from Dujin(smallpox) and Majin(measles) and published a medical book, ‘Majinpyeon’ for prevention and cure for smallpox and measles. He cured the smallpox of Gojong in Qing Dynasty and was compared with Pyenjak, a great Chinese doctor.
He also wrote ‘Slhumdanbang’, a book about various and light disease, and ‘Inseogyunmunrook’, a book about his experiences.
The name of ‘Inseogyunmunrook’, is known but the book itself was not shown.
Sammokyoung recorded ‘the Inseogyunmunrook is most valuable among books about experiences’ on the book ‘Joseonuiseoji’ he wrote, introducing two books he had.
In the ‘2013 Sancheong Expo of Traditional Medicines in the World’, ‘Inseogyunmunrook’ kept in Haengwooseook, Mujun, Japan was shown to the public. This book with introduction is for collection and regarded to have much value to be studied. In the introduction, there are contents like this.
“When we think about whole life of a person, they almost always have diseases. However, if we inform the patient how to cure their diseases, they can avoid the situation to damage themselves and they must be careful. I wrote many cures of various diseases which I experienced and brief prescriptions which I collected on one book to prepare for coming situations. Even if the written information is not detailed as the old medical books, it could be a little helpful for daily use. In fall(lunar calendar August), Gichukneon(1709), Inseonobu wrote.”
Tales about Ryuitae as medical tales are wrote most on “An outline of Korean Oral Literature (Academy of Korean Studies)”. His tomb is at San35-1, Galjeon-ri, Saengcho-myeon, Sancheong-gun.

Chogaek 1751~1812 Chosam 1754~1809

The great doctors of Sancheong, Chogaek(Chogaek is ja) and Chosam(Chosam is ja) brothers were born in Jayang-ri, Dansung-myeon, Sancheong-gun and their bongwan is Yangcheon.
The pen name of Chogaek, the older brother, is Munpo and real name is Heoypung. The pen name of Chosam, the younger brother, is Hoeun and real name is Heoeun.
Chogaek is good at prescription and Chosam is good at acupuncture. They were so famous as to be compared with Hwata and Pyenjak, legendary medical doctors.
When they went to all around the country, the younger brother, Chosam performed emergency measures with acupuncture and the older brother, Chogaek used medicines to eliminate the deep causes of the disease.
There was a story to show their reputation on Jinyangji, a book about local history in late Joseon Dynasty.
“Chogaek was near Gumgangsan Mountain and happened to stay in a village. The host was boiling some medicine. There was a name, ‘Chogaektang’, on the medicine package. Chogaek asked why. The host said his son had a disease, smallpox and almost died. A medical doctor said there was no medicine to cure him. The host added he heard there was a great medical doctor, Heochogaek, who is regarded as Hwata and Pyenjak of the time in the Youngnam and many patients said if he wrote the doctor’s name on package, his son could survive. Thus, he did it just for test. Chogaek smile and said, “How can the medicine just with borrowed name of him be the same as his own prescription?” He told him a prescription and his son got well.”
With this story, we can know their great reputations at that time. Jinyangsinbang, the medical data of experiences which Chogaek wrote when he worked in Sancheong, is stored in Korea Research Institute of Medicine and Jinwoosinbang is stored in Sancheong Museum of Korean Medicine. They are estimated as valuable materials to show the development of local medicine in late Joseon Dynasty and to confirm they are important cultural heritages of medicine in Sancheong.

King Guhyeung unknown dates

He is the 10th descendant of King Kimsoru.
He is the last king of Garakguk(Gumgwangaya). He was enthroned in 521 and ruled the country for 11 years until 532.

His wie is Guhyeung and his siho is Yang. He was a great grandfather of Yusin,Kim who played important roles for the unification of three nations.
According to Garakgukgi in the Heritage of the Three States, Garakguk was annexed to Silla in 532(King Bupheung of Silla 19). The King Guhyeung abandoned the war to save people’s lives and abdicated the throne. The record said this was why he was called as Yangwang. After that, King Guhyeung entered Taewanggung Palace in Wangsan Mountain on the foot of Jirisan Mountain. He died after 4~5 years and he left his will to build a tomb with stones because he couldn’t defend his own nation. His grandson, Seohyeun,Kim followed his will and built a stone tomb.
He made the Wangsansa temple as a wonchal to pray for the repose of King Guhyeung and earlier Kings’ soul. Also, the general Yusin, Kim practiced martial arts like archery and trained his spirit which became base for the unification of three nations. He left historic sites such as Sadaeteo and Sineungteo around Wangsan mountain. Thus, the Wangsan Mountain became historic sites of three kings of Garakguk(King Kimsuro, King Guhyeung and the Great Yusin,Kim)
The Wangsansaji(Taewanggungji), the ancient site of Garakguk, was appointed as designated cultural heritage of Gyeungsangnamdo, No 164.
The royal tomb of King Guhyeung, the national register of historic place, No 214, is a tiered stone tomb like a pyramid structured with tire on inclined mountain slope and is only one such kind of tomb in Eastern Asia.
It is known that the stone structure is a royal tomb when Kyeongwon,Min, a Confucian scholar in Sancheong, discovered Wgansansagi of Tanyoung monk, pictures, clothes, rusty swords, bow and relics of King Guhyeung and Queen Gaehwa which has been kept in a wooden box in Wangsansa. Ever since this discovery, the descendants have continued memorial services for the king and queen for about 220 years until now. The tomb is in San 16beonji, Hwagye-ri, Geumseo-myeon, Sancheong-gun.
Below the royal tomb, there is Dukyangjeon for memorial services for King Guhyeung and Queen Gaehwa. The Chunchugerye are performed in every spring (March 16, lunar calendar) and fall(September 16, lunar calendar). The Sakmanghangrye is performed in the first day and fifth day in each month.

Ikjum, Mun 1331~1400

Ja is Ilsan and pen name is Samwoodang. Bongwan is Nampyeong and Chomyeong is Ikcheom.
He was born in Gangseunghyeon(present: Baeyang Saweol-ri, Dansung-myeon, Sancheong-gun) as son of Suksun,Mun, Chungjunggong, Nampyeong Munssi. He made Samwoodang as own pen name because, the first, he worried his nation was not wealthy, the second, he worried Neo-Confucianism was not well educated and, the third, he worried he couldn’t accomplish own Do through study.
He was generous and faithful to his parents. When his mother died, he guarded her tomb for 3 years wearing mourning though Japanese force invaded the south regions. The Japanese general admired this and wrote ‘mulhaehyoja’ on the cut wood. Therefore, the village was safe.
Sunggye, Lee who came to Samnam regions visited the tomb to condole and asked King Woo to cite for his conduct to guard the tomb for 3 years. So, the village was called as Hyojari and Samwoodanghyojabi was built in 1383(King Woo 9)
He went to Yuan Dynasty as envoy when he was 33. At that time, the Emperor of Yuan Dynasty compelled him to cooperate on the plan to dethrone the King Gongmin and enthrone Dukheunggun. He kept his royalty to the king with saying, “As there are not two suns in the sky, there are not two kings in the heart of his subject.” It made the Emperor dislike him and send him to Wonnamseo Gyogiguk. He lived in exile there. When he returned to his own country, he risked his life to put some seeds of cotton thinking his people in misery lives.
When he came back to his hometown, he planted the seeds with his father-in-law, Cheonik, Jung and cultivated cotton miraculously. The cotton spread all over the country very immediately. It caused the dramatic changes in agricultural economy and improved cultural life very much including clothing life. Long time after this, the Great Sejong gave him a posthumous epithet, “buminhoo”. The examination field of cotton is appointed as historical site No. 108 and is on 106 beonji Saweol-ri, Danseung-myeon.

Josik 1501~1572

Ho is Sik, ja is Gunjung, pen name is Nammyeong and bongwan is Changnyeong.
Josik was born in Samga-myeon, Hapcheon-gun between this father Eunhyeung, Jo, a former Pangyo of Suengmunwon and his mother, Incheon Lee. When his father got a government position, he moved to Janguidong, Seoul in age 5. When he was a child, he followed his father to see the merit and demerit of politics and people’s suffering.
When he was 48, he returned his hometown, Samga in Hapcheon, and built Kyebudang and Neoiryongjung to criticize the king about wrong governance.
Since the entrance of Gun,O, many scholars such as Inhong, jung, Hang,Ha, Kye,Ok, Wooong, Kim and Youngkyong, Choi visited and learned.
When he was 61, he moved to Saryundong in Duksan(present: Sa-ri, Sicheon-myeon, Sancheong-gun) in which Chunwangbong was seen, built Sancheonjae and lived there and lectured until he died. The name of “Sancheon” was from the sentence in the Daechookgae of Juyeok, “This configuration is like sky is in the mountain. A noble man follows this to make his own virtue fresh with making oneself strong and faithful to shine oneself.
The study of Josik emphasized improvement to practice bravely with justice and practice spirit based on the improvement through respect. He wore a bell, Sungsungja(wake always), as a symbol of respect and Kyonguigum in which a sentence, Naemeongjakyeong Owidanjawui(To lights in is respect and to decide out bravely is justice) was carved as a symbol of justice.
When he died in age 72, the notice from Sancheonjae was known. Sunjo send Yeogwan to perform ancestral rites and promoted him as Daesagan. The Confucian scholars and his students built Dukcheonseowon near Sancheonjae (present: Won-ri, Sicheon-myeon,Sancheong-gun) to praise his study. At this, there are ancestral rites in the first Jungil of March and September of lunar system in every year. Also, Nammyeongjae is held to celebrate his birth on August 18 of solar calendar in every year.

Seungcheol 1912~1993

The secular name is Youngjoo,Lee, the bupho is Toiong and the Buddhist name is Seungcheol.
He was born in Mukgok-ri, Danseung-myeon, Sancheong-gun as the oldest son in 4 brothers and 4 sisters.
When he was 25, he became a monk to receive Samigye in Haeinsa Temple by a teacher, monk Hadongsan. On March next year, he received Bigugye at Gumganggyedan in Beomeosa Temple. The Bongamsa Group which started with Seongcheol, Chungdam, Jawon and Unbong at Bongamsa in 1947 made Gongjugaeyak to correct the tradition of Korean Buddhsim and emphasize the traditional meditation with insisting “living with Buddha’s laws”.
It couldn’t make great results because of the Korean War but contributed to fountain the Korean Buddhism. At age 44, he was appointed to be a chief Buddhist monk of Haeinsa Temple but he didn’t go out and prevent other people’s entrance to establish matchless theory of Buddhism and practical logic.
In 1967, he was inducted to be the first chief monk of Hainsa Temple Haeinchongrim. He preached the public in Baekilbupmun from lunar November 3, 1967 to lunar January 20, 1968 except special days. He said the essential truth of Buddhism is on the golden mean and clarified the critical doctrine of Sunjong is Donodonsu.(One enlightenment complete asceticism.)
When he was appointed to be the sixth supreme patriarch in 1981, he didn’t attend the Buddhist ceremony of inauguration and presented his Buddhist sermon, “Mountain is mountain and water is water.” It became famous issue and he presented the sermon, ‘the real figuration of life’ written with Hangul for the first time. With all these, he became a spiritual leader of Korean Buddhism and stabilized the religious order of Buddhism.
He died at am 7:30 on November 4, 1993, saying “Perform meditation well.” (sesu 82,beopnap 58)
In 2012, Geopwoisa Temple was built up to celebrate Seungcheol in the site of his birthplace located in Mukgok-ri, Danseung-myeon, Sancheong-gun, Gyeongnam. Behind the temple, there were Yuleungogeo, the birthplace of Seungcheol, sarangchae and memorial hall for Seungcheol.

Heunbong, Park 1906~1977

Ho is Gisan and bongwan is Milyang.
He was born as the second son of Sungho,Park in Gil-ri, Dansung-myeon, Sancheong-gun.
When he was 6, he started to learn Chinese classics in Seodang and learned up to Saseosamgyeong until he was 15. He went to Seoul in 16 and completed Botonggwa (the elementary course). In 1923, he graduated the 3rd High Class in middle grade middle school and returned to hometown because of death of his older brother.
In 1926, he went to Japan and returned. In 1928, he studied Gayagum and Chinese poetry in Jirisan Mountain for 4 years. After that, he came to Jinju and organized ‘Junju Melody Study Group’ to study pungryu and folk music. When he came to Seoul, he studied and experienced many fields of Gukak such as Jungak, Aakpungryu, Gyeongseodo and music&dance.
He tried the promotion of folk music in the Joseon Music Department of Association of Jeseon Music Companies. With independence, he built the Construction Center of Gukak to make the base of National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts and used the term, “Gukak” for the first time.
In 1960, he established Gukak Art School, the first private educational organization for Gukak, and became the first principle. After that, he became a governor of National Theater, the board president of Korea Gukak Association and a member of Cultural Heritage Committee. He left his passion and spirit for Gukak through “Changakdaegang” in 1966. He received the culture award of Seoul and Order of Civil Merit, Camellia Medal. We restored his birthplace in Dansung-myeon, Sancheong-gun to celebrate his achievement and built Gisangwan, educational building and exhibition which are named Gisangukakdang.
At his early stage of life, he tried to revival and enlightenment of Gukak. At the middle and late stages of his life, he dedicated himself to promotion of Gukak as theorist and educator of Gukak. He is a pioneer of Gukak movement and grand teacher to found succession and development of Gukak education as the first principle of Gukak Art School (present: National High/Middle School of Traditional Arts) which he established.